Adam dan Manusia Purba, Lebih Dulu Mana?

Adam dan Manusia Purba, Lebih Dulu Mana? Dahlan Iskan

Baik kera purba ataupun manusia purba, Mereka semua memiliki dua ciri yang membedakan antara satu sama lain, baik yang hidup atau yang sudah punah (Smithsonian, 2020).

Manusia

1. Gigi taring kecil pada jantan

2. Sumsum tulang belakang memasuki tempurung otak lebih jauh ke depan.

Kera

1. Gigi taring besar pada jantan

2. Sumsum tulang belakang memasuki tempurung otak lebih jauh ke belakang

“Tetap saja saya tidak mengakui manusia purba”, ya itu terserah Anda saja, mau percaya atau tidak datanya tetap gak akan berubah kok. Tulisan ini merupakan tulisan ulang dengan sedikit tambahan data, karena postingan saya sebelumnya di grup di hapus. (Dahlan Iskan)

DAFTAR PUSTAKA:

– E.D Enger & Ross F.C. (2000). Concepts in Biology (2nd ed). (Massachussets: Sinauer Longman).

– Dobzhansky, T. (1973). “Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Excepts in the Light of Evolution”. American Biology Teacher. 35: 125-129.Cambell, N.A & Reece, – – J.B. (2001). Essential Biology. (USA: Addison-Wesley Longman).

– Jacob. (1992). Teori Evolusi Biologi: Pengaruhnya terhadap berbagai Bidang Pemikiran. Ulumul Qur’an. 3 (1).

– Luria, S.E, Gould, S.J & S. Singer. (1981). A View of Life. (Canada: Benjamin Cummings).

– Kover, Paula. (2015). The five most common misunderstandings about evolution. The Conversation.

– Stump, Jim. (2018). 10 Misconceptions about Evolution. Biologos.

– Blake, Kevin. (2018). On the Origins of “The March of Progress”. Washington University.

– Mikkelsen, Tarjei. S, et all. (2005). Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome. Nature 437: 69–87.

– Prufer, Kay, et all. (2012). The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes. Nature. 486: 527–531.

– Thompson, Helen. (2015). What Does it Really Mean to Be 99 Percent Chimp?. Smithsonian Magazine.

– Ghose, Tia. (2013). “Just a Theory”: 7 Misused Science Words. Scientific American.

– National Academy of Sciences (US) (1999). Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences (2nd ed.). National Academies Press.

– Dawkins, Richard. (2000). “Hall of Mirror or What is True,” dalam Forbes ASAP.

– E.O. Wilson and Eisner T. (1973). Life on Earth, (USA: Sinauet Associates).

– Mayr, Ernst. (1986). “Uncertainty in Science: Is The Giant Panda a Bear or a Racoon?”. Nature. 323: 769.

– M.J. Luthfi & A. Khusnuryani. (2005). “Agama dan Evolusi: Konflik atau Kompromi?”. Kaunia. 1 (1): 1-19.

– D.J. Futuyma. (1986). Evolutionary Biology (2nd ed). (Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates).

– Indriati E. (2003). Waktu dan Evolusi. Artikel ini dipresentasikan pada Workshop Ilmu dan Agama, Gadjah Mada University Post Graduate Program, Yogyakarta, 25 – 27 Juni 2003, p. 78.

– Ward, Carol. V & Hammond, Ashley. S. (2016). “Australopithecus was an adaptive radiation of hominins that lived 4.2-2 million years ago. Who were these tough-chewing, ground-dwelling bipeds? What do they tell us about our early evolution?”. Nature Education Knowledge. 7(3):1.

– David Richter et al. (2017). “The age of the hominin fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and the origins of the Middle Stone Age”. Nature. 546 (7657): 293–296.

– Al-Maghluts, Sami bin Abdullah. (2008). Atlas Sejarah Para Nabi dan Rasul, Menggali Nilai-nilai Kehidupan Para Utusan Allah (Terjemah Bahasa Indonesia, oleh Abdur Rosyid Masykur, Ed.), (Jakarta: Penerbit Almahira).

– Mercader, J. (2009). “Mozambican grass seed consumption during the Middle Stone Age”. Science. 326 (5960): 1680–1683.

– Zeder, Melinda (2011). “The Origins of Agriculture in the Near East”. Current Anthropology. 52 (S4): 221–235.

– Molina, J et all. (2011). “Molecular evidence for a single evolutionary origin of domesticated rice”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (20): 8351–6.

– Braconnier, Deborah. (2011). Farming to blame for our shrinking size and brains. Phys.

– P.H. Raven & Johnson G.B. (1999). Biology. (5ed)., (New York: McGraw Hill).

– S.C. Stearns & R.F. Hoekstra. (2001). Evolution: An Introduction. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

– Berry RJ. & Hallam A. (1989). The Encyclopedia of Animal Evolution. (Oxford: Equinox).

– Tim Penyusun. (2020). How Do We Know These Are Human Fossils?. Smithsonian Institution.

BACAAN LANJUTAN:

– Campbell, Neil. A et all. (2012). Biologi Jilid 2 (3rd ed). (Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga).

– Waluyo, Lud. (2010). Miskonsepsi dan Kontroversi Evolusi serta Impikasinya pada Pembelajaran. (Malang: Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang Press).

– Hassan, Munif S; Ferial, Eddyman W. & Soekandarsi Eddy. (2014). Pengantar Biologi Evolusi. (Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga).

– Leakey, Richard. (2019). Asal Usul Manusia. (Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia).

– Tim Penyusun. (2016). Tafsir Ilmi: PENCIPTAAN MANUSIA Dalam Perspektif Al-Qur’an dan Sains. (Jakarta: Lajnah Pentashihan Mushaf Al-Qur’an).